Wednesday, 31 August 2016

Andrew Goodwin's Theory - Voyeurism/Objectification

6. Voyeurism and Objectification of the female body 
Voyeurism is when there are body parts of the artist shown that are provocative. Objectification of the female body is when there are women in the video that wear tight clothing, revealing clothing and focusing on the female body as an object. 


There are many music videos that convey the sense of both of these aspects. 

For example the music video 'M.I.L.F $' by Fergie is an example of the objectification of the female body as she and other women in the video are wearing revealing clothing. As for the voyeurism, the women are doing provocative things and showing off their bodies to the audience which attracts a large male audience, especially with the male gaze theory. This video caused some debate about what the message really was, which was discussed by the YouTube account The Fine Bros who made a video of parents reacting to the video. 



Another example would be the controversial music video by Robin Thicke. In this video there are a lot of examples of objectifying the female body. And the whole song caused a debate on the lyrics of the song and the fact that in the uncensored version the models were topless. The Guardian did an article on this song.  

Andrew Goodwin's Theory - Intertextuality

5. Intertextuality 
Intertextuality is when there is a media text referenced within another form of media. An example of this is when a music video references a movie or another song within their music video. 

For example in Katy Perry's music video 'Last Friday Night' the video has a reference to social media. There is also a reference to the singer Rebecca Black (who stars in the video) and who originally made a song called  'Friday'. Another reference are the two glee actors that feature in the video which makes the video appeal to a much wider audience



Another example would be Taylor Swift's music video 'Love Story' which is a narrative based video which references the story of Romeo and Juliet. In the lyrics, she references Romeo and even the costume is of around the same era to the play by William Shakespeare. 

Andrew Goodwin's Theory - Genre Characteristics

4. Genre Characteristics
Goodwin came up with genre characteristics in music videos. This means that certain genres of music will have a similar type of performance or narrative.  



Rock Genre - 'Goodbye Agony' - Black Veil Brides 
For the rock genre this music video fits the characteristics of the genre because it has a band that is performing and there is fast-paced editing for some scenes. Even with the band wearing eccentric costumes and make up


Pop Genre - 'Ain't Your Mama' - Jennifer Lopez 
For the pop genre, this music video fits the brief because it has bright lighting, lots of colours and a more upbeat melody. Also in pop music videos the artist's are performing in a narrative


Hip Hop Genre - 'Hotline Bling' - Drake
For the hip hop genre or R&B genre, this music video fits with the genre because of the fact that it has lots of women in tight clothing and the artist is performing to a catchy beat. There are narratives but not as amplified like in the pop genre

Andrew Goodwin's Theory - Visuals & Music

3.Relationship between the visuals and the music
The relationship between the visuals and the music is about how the video is cut/changes with to the beat. There are three types of ways that music videos work to promote their song. 

1. Illustrative - when a music video uses pictures/images to illustrate the lyrics and the genre of the music video. An example of this would be the music video 'Fancy' by Iggy Azalea. In this music video there are a lot of visuals to the music, which is upbeat and even the video has cutting to the beats and fast editing


2. Amplify - when a music video repeats effects and/or meanings of the lyrics to the audience. With the music video 'Can't Stop The Feeling' by Justin Timberlake, the beat and the visuals are built up and the meaning is repeated over and over again with the artist dancing to the beat as well. 


3. Disjuncture/contradicting - when the meaning of the song is ignored and the visuals are more important. An example of this would be 'Bad Romance' by Lady Gaga, which has Lady Gaga dancing around and being provocative but having nothing about romance.

Tuesday, 30 August 2016

Andrew Goodwin's Theory - Narrative & Performance

2. Narrative and Performance 
Narrative and performance is when a music video tells a story but also with some performance of either dancing, singing or playing.

Narrative music videos are when the artist/band are telling a story that has actors or that the artists' act in. There are 2 types of ways a narrative based music video is shown. 

The first being a linear narrative which is when the video has a beginning, middle and ending. A non-linear narrative is when the story starts from the middle and goes from the start or to the ending. Sometimes the video will go back to the beginning. 

An example of a linear narrative music video would be 'Black Magic' by Little Mix. 
In the video it begins with a school/college setting with the girl group in unattractive clothing and being bullied for their looks. Then the video goes into how the girls find a magic book that allows them to look attractive using spells. The girls use their magic on a nerdy looking boy who gets the attention of a group of girls. Also they make the mean girl lose her boyfriend with their magic. The video ends with the girls and the whole school having a party.



An example of a non-linear narrative music video would be 'I Knew You Were Trouble' by Taylor Swift. In this video it starts from the end with the singer lying on the ground in the middle of nowhere and shows flashbacks of what happened before she ended up in the deserted location.

Andrew Goodwin's Theory - Lyrics & Visuals


1. Relationship between the lyrics and the visuals 
Illustrative - Lyrics between visuals are easily put across to the audience

An example of this would be "All I Want" by Kodaline. This song is about a guy in a working environment who wants to ask his fellow female colleague out and be with her.



Amplified - When the director tries to make the visuals exactly as what the lyrics are saying. 

An example of this would be "Run Boy Run" by Woodkid. In this Music Video the lyrics are about a boy who needs to run from creatures and in the music video there is a boy who is running away from characters.



Contradictory - When the lyrics and the visuals have no cohesion and the visuals are different to what is being sung, or the lyrics are different to what is being shown. 

An example of this would be "Sorry" by Justin Bieber. This is not an extreme example but the song is about being 'sorry' but their are girls dancing around.

Andrew Goodwin's Theory - List

Andrew Goodwin's Theory 

Goodwin has come up with a theory that helps to deconstruct music videos into a form in which directors can use as a bases of making a music video.Goodwin has 5 key rules to follow when analyzing a music video, but I have broken down his theory into smaller groups making it easier to see exactly what is needed.  

1. Relationship between the lyrics and visuals 
2. Narrative and performance of the song 
3. Relationship between the music and visuals 
4. Genre Characteristics 
5. Intertextuality - pop culture references and other references from media texts 
6. Voyeurism/objectification of the female body  - focus on women, focus on the artist
7. Narrative based - tells a story within the music video 
8. Performance based - when the artist/band is singing, dancing or playing
9. Concept based - abstract type of music videos, almost random
10. Star image 
11. Technical aspects of the music video 

I will be making a post on each aspect of Goodwin's theory to a more in depth level. (Numbers 7,8 and 9 I will not be making a post on because this will be shown throughout the other posts). 

MVidEG10 Company - Justin Bieber

ACT: Justin Bieber
TRACK: Company
GENRE: Electropop, R&B
DIRECTOR: Rory Kramer 
YEAR: 2016

Justin Drew Bieber is a Canadian singer and songwriter. After a talent manager discovered him through his YouTube videos covering songs in 2008 and signed to RBMG, Bieber released his debut EP. [Wiki]

Mise-en-scene + Location

-          Starts off with a variety of locations and settings
-           Lots of scenes of Justin going onstage for his concerts
-          Lots of concert tour scenes with the fans
-          Main location is the tours with some behind the scenes shots
-          One scene with snow and Justin snowboarding – tracking shot
-          Another scene in a deserted field
-          Skateboard park with a low angled shot
-          Some behind the scenes of his photoshoots

Editing + Cinematography + Sound

-          Editing is fast paced with lots of cuts
-          The scenes are a variety of close ups and long shots with some mid shots
-          There are a lot of tracking shots and panning shots
-          Some handheld camera movements
-          Cuts are very rapid and shows a lot of low angle shots of him onstage
-          Mostly focuses on Justin Bieber on stage or behind the scenes – close ups
-          Has the music starting straight away – non diegetic as he isn’t lip syncing or showing that he is singing to the camera

Intertextuality
-          Lots of reference to his own concerts
-          Concert tours
-          Lots of his own advertising with the photo shoots

Target Audience
-          Females from the ages 10 to 25 years old
-          Males from the ages 14 to 25 years old
-          Mostly attracts a female audience because of the focus on himself
-          Males are attracted by his fashion style

Conventions
-          Scenes of his concerts
-          Lots of different costumes/outfits
-          Fans are featured in the video
-          Fast paced
No narrative to the video mostly performance based

MVidEG9 Strumbelles - Spirits

TRACK: Spirits
GENRE: Indie pop
DIRECTOR: Daniel Am Rosenberg
YEAR: 2016
LYRICS                     

The Strumbellas is a Juno-award winning, six-piece Canadian band, whose music has been described as alternative countryindie rock, and "folk popgrass". [Wiki]

Mise-en-scene + Location

-          Setting/Location is in a church
-          Close ups of the church benches and the books
-          Shows the podium with flowers on it in mid shot
-          Band are all dressed in costumes
-          Funeral casket is in the church with flowers on it – long shot to low angle shot
-          New location is outside where the band carry the coffin out – angled shot with close up


Editing + Cinematography + Sound

-          Starts with the name of the band and then the title of the song comes up.
-          Use of soft focus going into sharp focus
-          Mentions the director in small caption
-          Lead singer of the band is lip-syncing while looking into a mirror – close up
-          Use of lighting - very bright
-          Lots of cuts of the band playing instruments
-          Shows with panning shots and tracking shots the band singing
-          Close up of the band members placing items on the coffin
-          Light source coming from the church windows
-          Lots of shots of a crowd of people walking along the streets also dressed in costumes – long shots, low angle shots and crane shots.
-          Ends with a low angle shot of the lead singers shoes and some flowers hanging
-          At the end the video shows the companies that helped produce it – Canadian companies
-          There is diegetic sound of footsteps in the church
-          The singing starts a few seconds after – which looks like diegetic sound as the band seem to have instruments – making it realistic
-          Keyboard, violin, guitars and a drum kit


Intertextuality
-          The costumes are all from different eras in history


Target Audience
-          Males from the ages 15 to 27 years old
-          Females from the ages 14 to 27 years old
-          Would mostly target a niche audience as it’s an indie type of band

Conventions
-          Lip-syncing
-          Costumes + Makeup
-          Instruments

-          Narrative based video 

MVidEG8 Flo Rida - My House

ACT: Flo Rida
TRACK: My House
GENRE: Hip Hop/Rap
DIRECTOR: Alex Acosta
YEAR: 2015/16
Tramar Lacel Dillard, better known by his stage name Flo Rida is an American hip hop recording artist from Carol City, Florida. [Wiki]

Mise-en-scene + Location

-          Setting is in a house as the song title gives away what the video is set.
-          Shows Flo Rida’s house and he welcomes the ‘audience’ into his house.
-          Shows a woman standing outside his house waiting to be let in – over the shoulder shot
-          Shows different rooms in his house – kitchen and the living room
-          Has a special room where he is lip-syncing away from the guests
-          Then there is a scene of Flo in his bedroom singing to the camera while there is a woman asleep on his bed.
-           

Editing + Cinematography + Sound

-          Starts off like a film with credits saying ‘ Strong Arms Film Presents’
-          Has the ‘Director’ mentioned and then FLO RIDA with the title of the song MY HOUSE.
-          Cuts to Flo sitting on a big armchair with women surrounding him.
-          Objectification of the female body is strong in this video.
-          Shows women in shorts and revealing tops.
-          A variety of mid shots of the singer and his friends to close ups.  
-          Lots of women dancing around and drinking
-          Flo Rida is shown holding a drink and dancing with women around him.
-          Shows a woman dressed in silver clothing – very sexualised
-          Another woman is dressed in a more soldier type outfit holding fire on sticks
-          Shows a man blowing fire from bottles – slow motion effect 
-          Lots of cuts which makes it fast paced
-          Shows a woman pouring alcohol on herself (close up) and getting it licked off by another woman – lots of sexualisation and drunk behaviour.
-          After that the music and the cuts are in sync with a quick rapid effect
-          More objectification of the female body as there is a woman covered in sushi while people eat off her. Tracking shots and panning shots are used.
-          Pillow fight is shown with women – sexualising
-          Low angle shot of Flo Rida crouching down while surrounded by the pillow fight.
-          Then shows him with a crowd of women and men dancing and singing. – Long shot

 Intertextuality
-          Mostly party references

Target Audience
-          Males from 14 to 28 year olds
-          Females from 15 to 25 year olds
-          Mostly attracts the males because of the objectification of the female body

Conventions
-          Lip-syncing
-          Fast-paced
-          Costumes + Makeup
Lots of women

MVidEG7 Alan Walker - Faded

ACT: Alan Walker
TRACK: Faded
GENRE: Electronic Dance Music 
DIRECTOR: Rikkard & Tobias Haggbom 
Vocalist: Iselin Solheim
Video Location: Estonia 
Actor: Shahab Salehi 
YEAR: 2016

Alan Olav Walker is a British-Norwegian record producer who was born in Northampton, England. He is best known for the electronic dance music single "Faded".[Wiki]

Mise-en-scene + Location  

- The video starts off with cuts from different locations
-     - All the locations seem to be grey looking.
-     - The locations seem to look abandoned and deserted.
-      -  Character in the music video is dressed in a hoody and jeans – male
-      -  Close up of the characters hands taking a photo out of his pocket. – photo is of a house with a white picket fence – American Dream
-     -  Character walks through the building.
-      -    Lots of wide shots of different locations with the character walking around
-      -    Character runs towards a building in the middle of water
-       -   Last scene shows the character finding the location of the photo from the start.
-      -  Character close up and then a long shot of the house from the photo looking ruined.
        

Editing + Cinematography + Sound

Shows zoom ins of the locations
 Long shots of the different settings
-  A laptop is shown in an abandoned building sitting on some rubble.-  Lots of handheld camera movements to give a sense of realism  
-  The character never shows his/her face.  – conveys more of a mystery
-   Handheld camera follows the character as he/she is moving.    
-  Close up of the characters face but he/she has it covered up to his/her eyes.
-  Handheld camera does a pan from the feet upwards.
-  Lots of cuts from location to different locations that all look deserted
-    -  Character lights a flare – low angle shots
-    - The different locations are cut with the music making it fast paced.- Relationship between the song and visuals. 
-    -  There is non-diegetic sound at the start with static sound effect.
-   -   Then the song starts with the sound seemingly coming from the laptop.
-   -   No sign of the singer or Alan Walker.
-          
-     Star Treatment
-          No star treatment but the initials of Alan Walker
-          Singer is not in the video either
-          Typical of this type of music to have the DJ and the singer not featured in the video.

Target Audience
-          Males between the ages 14 to 25 years old
-          Females from the ages 15 to 25 years old

Conventions
-          No artist shown
-          Lots of location shots
-          Cinematography is the main focus
-          Editing and sound go together

-          Narrative based music video